Companies carefully guard their recipes for making chewing gum, but all chewing gum has the same basic ingredients. However, specific ingredients, give the gum delicious taste, are kept as secret. The basic ingredients are: gum base, softeners, sweeteners and flavorings. The ingredient that makes your gum 'chewable' is gum base. Gum base is the main ingredient in modern chewing gum.
Originally, chewing gum was made from the latex sap (chicle) of the sapodilla tree or other tree saps. For many years, gum base was made from chicle which was the chief ingredient in chewing gum. Today many modern chewing gums use rubber instead of chicle. In the middle 1900s, chemists learned to make synthetic rubber, which became a substitute for most natural rubber in chewing gums. Most gums are made from a synthetic rubber, or a mixture of artificial and natural bases.
Softeners are added to retain moisture. The most popular softeners are glycerin or vegetable oil based. Those ingredients are used to help prevent the gum from becoming hard or to stark.
Sweeteners are added to gum to give it that sweet flavor. Those ingredients are usually sugar, corn syrup and even beet juice. Sugar is probably the healthiest off all sweeteners. There are many synthetic sweeteners, but the most used are xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol and aspartame are also used.
A flavor ingredient in chewing gum has been found to provide long lasting, high intensity and high quality flavor. The flavorings are added last. The most used flavors in chewing gums are: peppermint (called only mint), fruit, spearmint (a variation of mint flavor), menthol (a mint related flavor). Other flavors are synthetically created and perfected in the lab.
Gum bases are mixed with other ingredients to make chewing gum.
Bubble gum contains more of the gum base and softener.
What exactly are the ingredients in the chewing gum depend on the type of gum being made.